For it to be valid and attain the impression of a complete organism so that it can compete with the real at all, it must be enhanced and complemented by fiction. Fiction, moreover, affords man the illusion of being master of reality. Like children, the elderly want to keep playing.
So they sacrifice the real to the wish for superiority and attempt, now conservatively, to preserve themselves in childlike play. Prehistory I A 1 Man closes himself off. Hatred, competition, the narrow clan, the emergence of the sedentary philistine, property and order; humans settle on a fixed milieu and ideas 2 Very early on: formation of widespread canons that transcend the tribe. All these are the history of things made by man. Of man, of ourselves, we know virtually nothing — we draw inferences from the sequence of his productions, which now bear witness to him.
In other words, we manufacture history the passage of time out of ossified things — arranging them, with more or less certainty, in chronological order. So to arrive at what we call an objective fact, we neutralize the experimenter even though, without him, there would be no physics at all; there would be physical processes. When we consider genetic developments, we likewise simply take it for granted that human evolution is thoroughly determined. Now we observe that all history of ideas is the history either of gods or of man, which is to say, for certain reasons, we have framed a separate history for these two categories and isolated gods and men from the processes of nature more generally.
Such anthropomorphism is evidently a kind of self-preservation; we isolate ourselves so as not to be absorbed by the world of objects, to maintain our position as agent subjects, to become conscious of the world at all. For all consciousness of a thing, all seeing is requires distancing. Now we observe that all history [made] by man appears to be extraordinarily inexact and vague. The supply of facts seems scant compared to the mass of interpretations.
Perhaps the study of man—because man taking a distance from himself is the mo immensely difficult if not impossible, has gotten stuck in a relatively archaic or mythical stage; we hardly dare experiment with ourselves, as though analysis of ourselves posed a danger to our vitality. Levy Bruhl. Question — how much degeneration is contained within this primitive — the valuation of reason as a defense against the superior gods and crushing fate — hence the rise of the overestimation of will to the point of excessive technical organization. That the parameters of this gulf would increasingly shift within technological society and that the politics of an ontological opening would maintain its relevance could not be predicted within the historical intensification of the conflicts in the s.
B20 Premluvu napsal V. Especially for surrealism, occultisms—historical sources, and current forms—were an implicit basis. B21 Hermann v. Paris: Librairie de France, With his translations e. In his Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy, he annotates nearly pictorial documents compiled from remote sources on black. Kurt Seligmann, The Mirror of Magic.
Stephan E. The surrealist painter and illustrator bought the book in Paris in Some eighteen years later his own book on the history of occultism, The Mirror of Magic, was published in New York. By underscoring the cultural historical significance of magic as a form of knowledge and empowerment, he forged a rationale for his own practice in the present.
Paris: AMG. Das Rote Buch The Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung — is a personal document and a symptom of the European crisis at the beginning of the twentieth century, containing mystical, psychotic, as well as numerous mythological, religious echoes. Although the surrealists invoked Sigmund Freud and especially his interpretation of dreams, their discussions activated a series of conceptions of media that hark back to the prehistory of psychoanalysis and hint at the more collective or social dimensions. Carl Einstein does not hew to the strict clinical sense of hallucinations as endogenous images that have no somatic basis and are unprompted by any outside stimulus to the optic nerves.
Hans Prinzhorn, Bildnerei der Geisteskranken. Ein Beitrag zur Psychologie und Psychopathologie der Gestaltung. Berlin: Juncker, Fritz Grunewald, Mediumismus. Die physikalischen Erscheinungen des Okkultismus. Visages du monde, revue mensuelle, no. Journal de neurologie et de psychiatrie, vol.
Paris: G. All of a sudden the face grew pale, and I was conscious of the delusion. Thanks to the analysis of this paranoid picture I recognize, by means of symbolic interpretation, all the ideas which preceded the sight of this face. Biology was expected to compensate for the generally lamented loss of social cohesive forces. B23 Paris: Hachette Livre, Forme et Fonctionnement. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, Tome I La variation. Rieder, And this was despite the fact that the ideologies of Imperialism and Fascism had additionally incorporated biologistic theories and imagery with seeming doctrinaire neutrality.
In this novel, the author of the epochal Brave New World, Aldous Huxley — , describes how a doctor and a millionaire seeking immortality break into the estate of a man who has managed to prolong his life to years. To their horror and amusement, they find he has grown into an ape. The art historian Henri Focillon — was of the firm conviction that his field was the opposite of a linear evolution of. The acclaimed scholar was fascinated by the anachronisms, sudden developmental leaps, and latent phases.
This self-agency of forms ultimately gave rise to a morphology, which was independent of man and discharged of all mimetic tasks.
Table of contents
Karl Blossfeldt, Urformen der Kunst. Photographische Pflanzenbilder . Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, Springer, He postulated an infinite variety of perceptual worlds, among which no communication was possible, as if between soap bubbles. With racist rancor, some authors even made the comparison between the developmental stages to the detriment of indigenous cultures. Georges Bataille and Roger Caillois were also interested in theories related to animal societies, albeit under different circumstances.
B24 Miguel Covarrubias, Mexico South. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec . London et al. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Miguel Covarrubias —57 embodied an astonishing and forward-looking concept of what an artist in the twentieth century could be without denying or losing sight of himself as an artist.
The scion of a wealthy Mexican family, he was a commercial illustrator, mural painter, museologist, anthropologist, archaeologist, collector of pre-Columbian art, writer, sociologist, and anti-colonialist. The books on Bali and the isthmus of Tehuantepec are examples of this unique practice in their mixture of critical reflection, literary narrative, ethnological ambition, and visual originality. Both were produced during his extensive travels with Rose Covarrubias, a former Broadway dancer and photographer. The article on the ritual wood carvings of the people of Dogon inhabiting the Bandiagara Cliffs in what is today Mali formerly French Sudan furnishes a good example of a successful collaboration between ethnologists, linguists, and visual artists in the s.
Indeed, so close was their cooperation that the boundaries between the various disciplines became increasingly blurred; for who was chiefly responsible for the knowledge production? Was it Michel Leiris, who as author of the article switched back and forth between ethnology, literature, and criticism?
Was it the photographer, author, and painter Man Ray, who contributed the elegantly illuminated images of the Dogon sculptures and masks? Wolfgang Paalen. B25 We know that the function of touching, of grasping with the hand, transitions into the same function by the eye Here, it is younger and should therefore 1. Petersburg Story, trans. Fierce waves are breaking Like thieves into the houses. Snaking Adrift, boats buffet, smashing panes. Vladimir Majakovskij and Ossip Brik. Eisenstein was. Eine tierpsychologische Untersuchung.
Moscow: Muzej Kino, Nikolaj Marr. Franz Doflein, Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde. Jena: G. Fischer, Movement, memory, and metamorphosis occur in even the smallest organisms: the protozoa. Leipzig: S. London: K. Spearing, Ignatius of Loyola, and Charles Baudelaire, together with clippings from Pravda , The Times, scientific articles, publicity material, etc.
The faces of people depicted on the vases were shifted from a frontal, fixed view to a profile, thus giving their surroundings a new narrative dimension. The expedition was also intended as a model for future ethnographic undertakings. B26 Gaston-Louis Roux, cover of Minotaure, no. In Africa, Leiris found the themes that would preoccupy him for the rest of his life. Griaule was displeased with the book and especially with its portrait of the.
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Lifchitz would lose her struggle for survival under the changed power relations. She died in Auschwitz shortly after being deported to the extermination camp. Soon, though, together with the ethnologist Denise Paulme, Lifchitz embarked on her own, self-organized, nine-month field research trip in —an indication of how ethnology became an attractive and comparatively liberal field of work in particular for young female scientists in the s. Slideshow: Minotaure, no. Marcel Mauss in particular had always alluded to the inherent potential of using principals of ethnological analysis on Western societies.
B27 Michel Leiris served as senior editor. Einstein also solicited essays from numerous German scholars. The rediscovery of Documents, made possible by the reprint that came out in. Opposite an advertisement by Galerie Flechtheim for an exhibition including sculptures by Edgar Degas and Auguste Renoira, other contemporary sculptors, and Polynesian sculptures.
Even if the captions repeatedly point out physical features, the people are shown in relation to objects and a culturally created environment. The thematic range of the text, conceived as being between to pages to which between fifty-six and illustrations would be added , is extensive. A common point of reference was the concept of the revolutionary myth, which the philosopher Georges Sorel developed with respect to the general strike and proletarian violence. Adorno, Walter Benjamin, and others. B28 Paris: Albert Skira, pp. According to Lacan, the unity of the ego, and thus the constitutive difference between the inner and outer world, is essentially a result of a misrecognition, which is retroactively evoked by the trauma of the fragmented body so frequently thematized in surrealism.
This theory of the loss of self, narcissism, and imaginary misrecognition as a border defense, was also referred to as a theory of the fascist subject.
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Faits et documents . Paris: Syndicat national des instituteurs et institutrices, n. Essai de psychologie S sociale, preface by Pierre Janet. Paris: Mercure de France, In his preface to the book by his younger colleague Wladimir Drabovitch — on the fragility of freedom, the acclaimed psychologist and therapist, Pierre Janet — writes that the susceptibility of people to strong leaders and dictators can be attributed to the widespread fatigue and the high incidence of depression.
Drabovitch, a Pavlov student, published his book just a few months after the National Socialists seized power in Germany. He also alludes to the violent Paris street clashes of February 6, , instigated by the far-right leagues. Here motifs can easily be identified, which also played a role in the political theory-building of orthodox and heterodox surrealism. The manipulable, affect-driven masses became the target not only of a fascistic methodology, but also of aesthetic speculation.
Its founding manifesto demanded that capitalism be overcome, industry be collectivized, and that colonialism be abolished. Paris: NRF. The garish propaganda of the wall texts and the accompanying publication seemed to abandon themselves to the purported distortions in modern art. Fascistic fervor was staged with works of art that negated the Nazi ideal of art and race. The exhibition, which could also be considered a psychogram, traveled through numerous cities in the territory of the Reich until Scattered protests on foreign soil responded to the unparalleled Vehmic campaign.
B29 Munich: Haus der Deutschen Kunst, Lehmanns, Georges Braque and Carl Einstein form an exciting pair. In the early s he began writing a book about the painter, which would not be published until , and then only in a French translation—possibly procured by the author himself. Einstein had organized a major Braque retrospective in Basel just a few months earlier, in Georges Braque once again draws closer to this world, which was believed lost. Eugene Jolas. Paris: Albert Skira reproduction. B32 Heinrich Eildermann, Urkommunismus und Urreligion. Geschichtsmaterialistisch beleuchtet.
Berlin: A. Berlin: Verlag Junge Garde, Karl August Wittfogel — was a sociologist and sinologist and a member of the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt. In he wrote a series of articles on the origin of human society for Die Junge Garde, which he published in an expanded edition as the brochure Vom Urkommunismus bis zur proletarischen Revolution From primitive communism to the proletarian revolution.
For Wittfogel, the idea of an egalitarian, precapitalist past—which also proved inspirational for the French Revolution—was an anticipation of the postcapitalist. Otto Neurath, Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft. He had observed barter economies in and after the war, and deducted that it is feasible to realize a planned economy without money.
The ensuing reduction in productivity could be mitigated by means of scientific techniques based on analysis of work-flows, and so on, as advocated by Frederick Winslow Taylor. The factory diaries are the documentation of an attempt at crossing class borders and the limits such borders impose on representation. To experience what proletarian life meant in the aftermath of the Great Depression, philosopher Simone Weil —43 got herself hired at a plant of the electric company Alstom as a drill-press operator, in Boulogne-Billancourt as a packer, and as a machinist at a Renault plant.
After a year and severe health problems, Weil abandoned factory work. At the time, she was making important public contributions, peircing through the smokescreen of fantasy and outright lies surrounding French colonialism. In her writings on the factory experience, Weil focused on the psychologically numbing effects of factory work.
Between self-assertion as aesthetic practice and anti-modernist self-transgression a new room-for-play emerges. Venturing beyond the categories of abstraction and figuration, as well as the anti- category of formlessness, the works of this period reflect the quest for a productively delimited mimesis. Forces of destruction contrast with the potential, the scope, and the maladjustment of childhood.
Images experiment in the interstitial spaces of body forms and drawn figures. Sections A and B are conceived as an excavation site, as the scene of a critical, archaeological engagement with deep time. Portrait of James Lesesne Wells, c. The New York-based photographer James Latimer Allen was one of the most sought-after portraitists of the new black American intelligentsia of the s and s. It was made by an artist from the Kuba kingdom of Central Africa; its aristocratic status could be assumed familiar to those involved within that society.
In the photographic pose showing the two figures gazing at one another—the wooden face and the profile of the artist—this would also symbolize the transference of a specific, transhistorical nobility. Carl Einstein devoted only a few lines to Hans Arp in the third, edition of his Die Kunst des Similarly, the collage featuring the torn-out fragment of a black-and-white print from the late s also participates in the textualization of subjectless seeing.
The glued-on strip of Gothic script bearing the fictitious? Lichte Figuren [Light figures], —47 Lithograph, Untitled Urzeitgestalten [Primordial figures], —47 Lithograph, c. His general theme could be read as exploring the relationship between figures and the surrounding constitutive pictorial space. Starting from the constructivist concept of the human figure characterizing his early works, which is incorporated into a structure of lines of relation and projection, his style shifted toward more biomorphic figures, which were sustained merely by elegant, rhythmic lines within a clear, ambient space.
The resulting effect was as if the constructivist world of forms had spawned a counter-image from archaic sources, which demonstrably fascinated Baumeister in and around the s. In conscious contradistinction to painterly naturalism, this trend towards biomorphization inspired Baumeister to draw on prehistoric motifs and forms, which continued to remain a feature of his late works.
Liberating himself from the anthropomorphs, he directly linked the modern nuclear age with the Paleolithic to forge a transhistorical visual language. Untitled, c. From onward, he worked for Man Ray as the successor to Berenice Abbott. In addition to his activities as an artist and graphic designer in which capacity he, besides others, was responsible for designing the posters for ethnological exhibitions , Boiffard garnered high acclaim for his exceptional skills in the production of photographic prints.
Around he then began creating primarily images of masks. Similarly, the tenebrous photo of a face, obscured beyond recognition by a curtain of hair, and from behind which only the eyes shine forth, is a further variation on the theme of masking and defiguration. The Theogony by the Greek poet Hesiod of around BC describes the complex origins of the world and the genealogy of the gods, from their beginnings with the primal deities Chaos, Gaia, Tartarus, Eros, Erebus, and Nyx, to the various marriages and liaisons of Zeus. The series of etchings was created between and , but was not published until In the detour via magical transformism, Braque regained the sense of the ontological openness of subjectivity.
In the following year he began work on the cycle Graffiti, which would occupy him for the ensuing two decades. What he sought to show eluded our quotidian gaze, and only revealed itself, if at all, to the nightly wanderers who encountered these drawings on the walls, in alleyways, and in the hidden corners of the city. In he joined the Romanian Communist Party, started to publish in journals of the radical left, and dropped painting temporarily in favor of drawing and caricatures defined by an aggressively erotic form.
Entre Nous [Between us], Gelatin silver print reproduction , Self-Portrait, Gelatin silver print reproduction , Claude Cahun, born Lucy Schwob, was known in Paris in the s and s for writings and performances. They were produced in collaboration with her lifelong partner Suzanne Malherbe Marcel Moore. Their anti-autobiography Aveux non Avenus also thwarts the idea of singular authorship. The collage material blends to form a spiritualistic picture: The eye is part of a trinity, which also includes a convex breastplate in which multiple reflections of Cahun can be seen, and a world map carefully enclosed by two hands.
A key figure of American surrealism, Joseph Cornell is widely known for his box assemblages, but he also pioneered the genre of found-footage film. By undermining stable meaning and linear narrative, Cornell stages an explicitly formal exploration of the cinematic medium and its experience, focusing on the manipulation of time, light, gaze, and gesture. The film shows industrial processes as if in reverse—upside down and run backwards. Cornell juxtaposes these shots with intertitles and sequences showing rituals, as well as close-up depictions and negative images of insect worlds.
La Coquille et le Clergyman—sometimes credited as the first surrealist film—was the result of a contested collaboration between Dulac and Antonin Artaud, who had written a script about a young cleric troubled by his desires for a beautiful woman, the wife of a dominant male character, a general. As the cleric struggles with his fears, desires, and violent impulses, he experiences visions of death and lust. Dulac translates the story into a series of transgressive visual metaphors, deliberately confusing the masculine and feminine.
The common ground between Dulac and Artaud was the belief that cinema was able to challenge the given hierarchies and value-systems, and that its visual language could directly engage the unconscious. Expressivity is a visible deformation resulting from this conflict. This line seems to dismiss the force of gravity as easily as perspective: in an ecstatic and rhizomatic threshold experience between animal, plant, and human. Over the years, the Mexican film became the object of repeated alterations: In and , Sol Lesser edited the two short films Thunder over Mexico and Death Day From Histoire Naturelle, Nr.
Over long periods, Max Ernst propelled his subjects in constant metamorphoses and technical variations. His pictures offered themselves to a deep time of the present, an eerie milieu of ontogenesis. Like the dead forest of fish bones, the city appears as a primordial landscape. Then they represent the morbid fascist threat, but they also universalize it mythically as a force of nature. In , he began studying art at the Bauhaus in Dessau, where his father, Lyonel Feininger, taught. Feininger was initially interested in photography, but in he began to paint, with the world of seafaring and the sea the theme of his pictures.
Kai von New Orleans of shows two groups of figures, in each of which one figure is dark-skinned, near a rigged sailing ship. Masque Humour no 1 [Humour Masque No. Personnage science fiction [Science Fiction Character], Indian ink, pen drawing, colored pencil, and pencil on Canson paper, After moving to Paris, he quickly became a regular participant in the major group exhibitions. Despite retaining a fundamental constructivity, the artist succeeds in evoking a playful weightlessness.
Henri Untitled Kakteen [Cacti], Gelatin silver print, Henri Untitled Komposition mit Spiegel und Tellern [Composition with mirror and plates], Gelatin silver print, Untitled Stillleben, Komposition mit Kugel, Sieb und Spiegel [Still life, composition with ball, sieve, and mirror], Gelatin silver print, Stillleben mit Tulpe [Still life with tulip], Gelatin silver print, After training as a painter, Florence Henri recognized that photography had become a significant artistic medium due to its rapid advances in public impact and the technical improvements in industrial image production.
After returning to Paris, she experimented with photography to achieve a unique visual language through innovative use of geometric elements, above all, mirrors. In these viewing cabinets, inanimate and animated objects interacted in a completely new way. This transformed photography into a field of experimentation that had the advantage over many methods of abstract painting for its actual contact with real objects. It was also suited to negotiating the psychological aspects of the self on one level with technical aesthetics.
Around it could not be taken for granted that artists had at their disposal good photographic reproductions of their current works. This was one of the reasons that, in the early s, the English sculptor Barbara Hepworth joined up with professional photographers, including E. Mason and especially Paul Laib, before taking the photographic documentation into her own hands around The two photographs by Laib must have been taken around and show two small, biomorphic alabaster sculptures. Their volumes are represented to great effect through the choice of camera position, fall of light, and the optical lenses.
Aus einem ethnographischen Museum, Nr. X, ohne Titel, Original von [From an ethnographic museum, no. X, Untitled, original from ] Photomontage facsimile , Heinrich Hoerle was one of the founding figures of the Cologne Progressive—a group of politically engaged artists, who in the s and early s exhibited internationally, and published their own journal, a bis z.
Although Pornomappe appears at odds with this method, it, too, is defined by formalization. These images functioned as templates, whose continuous repetition across different media indexed a crisis of narrative, including that of bourgeois, heteronormative sexuality. Paris: Cahiers libres, Private Collection, Berlin. Private Collection, Berlin. Illustration, in F. Paris: Robert Laffont, n. Adopted into the circle, she created surrealist object arrangements, but also pursued her own unique paths in paintings and illustrations.
One of her most extensive works illustrated a edition of stories by Achim von Arnim. According to a pictorial logic of the liquefaction of forms, she conceived whole pictures with the finest white highlights and hatchings as an aesthetic system that integrates a wide variety of objects, spaces, and written elements. Flucht vor sich erstes Stadium [Flight from oneself first state ], Pen on paper on cardboard, Pfeile der avant—garde [Arrows of the avant-garde], Brush on paper on cardboard, Vermittlung [Mediation], Charcoal-rubbing on paper on cardboard His positioning of oppositions must always be considered against the background of another layer, which we can imagine as a bottomless depth of time and a milieu of cosmic emergence: As an inarticulate foundation before all distinctions.
For Klee, the question of mediation the title of one of the drawings shown here is a constant starting point. In it, everything fairy-tale-like is lost, for nothing less is subject. Le port. In Brazzaville, the capital of Free France or France libre, she took over the newly established photography service. In the territories of the present-day states of Gabon, Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Chad, and Cameroon, which had joined France libre, by the end of Germaine Krull had documented agricultural production processes, the extraction of valuable raw materials and of mineral resources, but also pointed her camera at landscapes, people, folklore, and everyday culture.
Within this spectrum, the harbor views from Douala are unique. Untitled Blackbirds, Lewis Cole , c. The arrival of the African-American ensemble caused quite a stir in Paris in the summer of She depicts Lewis Cole, one of the dancers, in a black stage-tuxedo, seated in profile with his hands confidently in his pockets, but also holding a hat and doing a side-step in front of a shiny curtain. These photos seem not as if Krull was looking for a fashionable subject, but as if Cole were looking for headshots for his portfolio.
Untitled Homme avec enfant [Man with child], c. Plantation de fadoma. Composition, White chalk and graphite on gray-green paper, He recognized this in contrast to the sujet, which he considered a backward category of abstract painting. While it was previously dominated by constructively interwoven tubular forms, now we observe an approximation of the biomorphic to technically constructive forms.
Button to Secret Passage , c. Her work subverts the ideological use of images of children with regard to gender roles, domestic norms, and racial homogeneity. She instead makes us ask: What is a little subject person before being recognized as such? The work of the photographer and film artist Eli Lotar fluctuates between an abstract sense of form and socio-critical impulses. He was a successful portrait photographer and published his work in popular magazines early on, and later in Documents and Minotaure.
On his wanderings through Paris, he was interested in representations of what was visible in a metropolis and what was condemned to invisibility and untouchability under the dictates of bourgeois conventions. He pursued this strategy of approaching the discarded in his portraits, for example in a —31 rehearsal scenario in which he photographed the Senegalese dancer Feral Benga.
This strategy also applies to his much more famous, reportage-like series of images, in particular the photographs of Parisian slaughterhouses in La Villette. The disturbing thing about his depictions is their cruel exposure in secluded places. This series of images of abattoirs found their ideal publication setting in Documents. The artist Len Lye, known for his kinetic sculptures and experimental films, grew up in New Zealand and lived for short periods, among other places, in Australia and Samoa, before settling in London in Len Lye was one of the few people within European avant-garde circles who knew the indigenous culture and art of New Zealand, Australia, and the islands of the South Pacific, integrating it into a modernist artistic language.
Force and metamorphosis do not exclude each other in these pictorial worlds either. Initially in his work, which fluctuated between the alternating influences of Breton and Bataille, his political stance against the rise of fascism remained clothed in mythology. In the wake of his radicalization during the Spanish Civil War, however, it came to lose its ambivalence. Cover illustration, in Minotaure, no. Bote aus dem Jenseits [Messenger from the hereafter], Oil on cardboard, This small-format painting by the Lucerne-based painter and graphic artist Max von Moos introduces a monumental figure comprised of disparate elements: The beaked head could have belonged to some prehistoric flying dinosaur, the upper-torso of the figure is covered by shell-like wings, the arms hang down like loose cudgels, and the floor-length garment has the appearance of a megalith cleaved in two.
Von Moos, who throughout his life hardly ever left his native city of Lucerne, was an avowed surrealist, without ever having actually forged contact with the surrealists. In , the Swabian Nesch moved to Hamburg where he was affiliated with the Hamburg Secession and expanded his graphic vocabulary. Three slender figures seen from behind, dressed in long robes, are holding their arms aloft, as if they are dancing and waving to the windjammer in the background. The harbor is staged as a space of ecstatic movement. In Die Kunst des Baumlandschaft [Tree landscape], c.
Crystalline excrescences rise up in a landscape whose horizon is obscured by cloudy swirls of foggy haze. Horror in gray. When he fashioned this work, Richard Oelze had been living in Paris for two years, following the seizure of power by the National Socialists. Executed in a style reminiscent of the Old Masters,. Probably the most fascinating source of information on his years in Paris, from which only a few works and practically no texts by the artist have survived, is the novel Insel Island by the modernist poet and artist Mina Loy. Fumage [Smoked], Candle smoke on paper, mounted on cardboard, The two fumages smoke pictures by Wolfgang Paalen offer an insight into the methods of the German-Austrian-Mexican artist and theorist.
For the fumages, freshly prepared canvases, papers, or wooden boards were moved over a candle flame. At the time he created the fumages—which he later often developed further for paintings—Paalen made his breakthrough as a surrealist artist. After the German invasion of France, Paalen decided not to returm from a trip to America. In , while living in Mexico, he finally bade surrealism farewell—by founding his own group with an affiliated periodical Dyn.
Hyas and Stenorhynchus is a film about spider crabs, ghost crabs, and bristle worms. Their shells are home to other life forms such as algae, sponges, and polyps, which become the clothing of the animals until they leave their shells to seek a new environment. Eigensinn [Obstinacy], Oil on canvas, With her form of painterly abstraction, however, and although she. They overlap and embrace one another as if weightless, but form stratifications more than they penetrate or compete with each other. Despite her efforts at balance, her entangled forms remain nonetheless asymmetrical.
The artist made the spiritual dimension of her picture clear in the title using the terms yin and yang. Rather, the city has fallen. Terry Parks. How To Be Successful. Irakli Maisuradze. The Powers. Mark W. You, Inc. Harry Beckwith. The Little Book of Prosperity. PJ Van Hulle. Paul Collier. Setting Yourself Goals. Joshua Walker. The Art of Making Money. Ian Simelane. How To Get Wealthy. Natalie Diroma. Summary of The Happiness Project. Tim Sweeney. Brand Together. Nicholas Ind. Anatomy of a Business Plan. Linda Pinson. The Perfection You Seek.
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Subject: European Neighbourhood Policy with Georgia. Subject: European Neighbourhood Policy with Libya. Subject: Organisation of port labour in Belgium — distorting effect of this system on the internal market — barriers to free movement. Subject: Investigation into the rigging of the Euribor. Subject: Sanctions related to rigging of the Euribor. Subject: Possible passive support by several airlines of human exploitation. Subject: Anti-fraud provisions in bilateral agreements. Subject: Norwegian duties increase on agricultural products.
Subject: Implications of the Prism programme for Europe. Subject: Declaration of war and the use of sarin gas. Subject: Europe's digital economy is lagging behind. Subject: Continuity of the rule of law in Member States. Subject: Right to vote, stand for election and hold public office. Subject: Developments in connection with permission to use the beach and shore in Agios Mamas Chalkidikis. Subject: Water pollution caused by excess nitrates in L'Eliana. Subject: Closure of the Mondelez factory in Ateca. Subject: US espionage in the Justus Lipsius building.
Subject: Interception of telephone and Internet communications by EU representatives carried out by the United Kingdom. Subject: Public consultation on unconventional fuels. Subject: EU-funded projects in Cagliari, Sardinia. Subject: Cross-border distance sales of tobacco products. Subject: Citizenship illegally granted to famous Turks by occupying regime in Cyprus. Subject: Social safeguards in agreements with countries in receipt of financial assistance.
Subject: EU assistance in taking legal action in another Member State. Subject: EU funding to improve general health of construction workers. Subject: Implementation of the Aarhus Convention. Subject: Setting maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals present in food supplements. Subject: Cyprus banking sector and the memorandum of understanding MoU.
Subject: Memorandum of Understanding for Cyprus — lack of measures to promote growth. Subject: Destruction of the Cypriot international financial centre. Subject: Optimal size for the Cypriot banking sector. Subject: The sale of the Greek branches of Cypriot banks. Subject: The shrinkage of the banking system of Cyprus. Oggetto: Bonifica della discarica di Borgo Montello Latina.
The Borgo Montello landfill in the province of Latina is the third largest in Italy. It also appears that the oldest part of the landfill has, since the s, contained toxic drums that are the result of waste trafficking and that the investigation launched by the Lazio regional authorities has ground to a halt due to the failure to identify a site that could treat any hazardous waste that might be found. The Commission is not aware of the press article mentioned by the Honourable Member and will ask the Italian Government for further information, including on any measures the competent authorities may plan to take to address the problem referred to in the question posed by the Honourable Member.
The Commission notes that there is an ongoing judicial investigation concerning the alleged illegal disposal of hazardous waste mixed with municipal waste in the landfill of Borgo Montello, as well as contamination of ground waters in the area where the landfill is located.
Pending the conclusions of the investigation by the Italian Authorities, launching a parallel investigation by the Commission would not bring any real value added. Due to its proximity to Israel and its geographical location, Cyprus is well placed to act as a transit point to Europe. What are the possible implications for the European Union of this decision by the Israeli Cabinet and of possible cooperation between Israel, Greece and Cyprus in respect of natural gas? The Commission is closely following the exploration activities in the East Mediterranean basin.
The East Mediterranean gas finds could play a very important role in helping both producing and neighbouring countries including Greece to address their energy security problems. The issues raised by the Honourable Member underline the need for a rapid comprehensive settlement in Cyprus between the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities under the auspices of the United Nations. A settlement would open up a range of options for the exploitation of hydrocarbon resources in the economically most advantageous way for the benefit of all Cypriots.
Betreft: Illegale subsidie voor hernieuwbare energie. Het Hof heeft in dit arrest bepaald dat huishoudens die elektriciteit opwekken via zonne-energie en stroom toevoegen aan het net volwaardige ondernemers zijn. Welk advies geeft zij in verband met de plotselinge toename van het aantal ondernemers als gevolg van dit arrest, op grond waarvan huishoudens verplicht zijn zich te laten registreren als ondernemers?
Stelt zij een herziening van de regels inzake subsidieverstrekking voor? In this ruling, the ECJ declared that households generating electricity from solar energy and delivering power to the grid were fully-fledged entrepreneurs. When applied in the Member States, this could open the way to millions of VAT claims from households that have already installed solar panels.
Will it suggest a revision of the rules on granting subsidies? ISS is a member of trade associations in the cleaning and catering sectors, which are formally recognised parties to the official sectoral social dialogue committees, for which the Commission provides support and the secretariat.
The Commission fully respects the autonomy of the social partners, who are responsible for deciding on their representatives attending sectoral social dialogue committee meetings and for setting the agendas. No European legislation specifically provides for the right to strike or governs the conditions for its exercise.
It is for the competent national authorities, including the courts, to ensure that the national legislation transposing that directive is correctly and effectively applied by the employer concerned, having regard to the specific circumstances of each case. Oggetto: Segnalazioni del Sistema di allerta rapido per gli alimenti e i mangimi nel Cina, India e Turchia. Fra queste notifiche rientrano rischi dovuti a contaminazioni da aflatossine, formaldeide, cromo, manganese, nickel e altri.
Intende procedere a una revisione degli accordi commerciali, per quanto riguarda gli alimenti, con questi tre paesi terzi, con l'intento di ottenere una maggiore garanzia per la sicurezza dei cittadini europei? La Commissione non ha accordi commerciali con questi tre paesi. If the notifications from these three countries alone are added together, they account for more than a third of the total notifications from all countries.
Another cause for concern is the fact that the number of notifications for these three countries shows no sign of decreasing — on the contrary, in , the number of notifications rose from to , i. These notifications were for hazards such as aflatoxins, formaldehyde, chromium, manganese, nickel and others. In light of the above, can the Commission say whether a Food and Veterinary Office inspection has been conducted with a view to analysing the problems that are compromising the safety of food products from these three third countries and the effectiveness of Member State official monitoring systems?
Does it intend to revise trade agreements concluded with these three countries, which cover food products, with a view to improving food safety in the EU? Does it intend to liaise with the competent authorities in these three countries in order to boost efforts to tackle cases of contamination? This also may explain the high number of RASFF notifications which have to be viewed in relation to trade volumes. The Commission carries out regular audits both in third countries and EU Member States to verify the compliance of exported products and the efficiency of control systems.
The Commission has no trade agreements with these three countries. The EU already implements such measures for some of the products and countries mentioned. Alhoewel deze uitgave onder de competentie van de Voorzitter van het Europees Parlement valt, zou ik niettemin uw opinie willen vragen over dergelijke praktijken in het algemeen:. Het komt op mij over als een zorgelijke ontwikkeling als propaganda van de Europese Unie zich speciaal gaat richten op kinderen.
Deelt u mijn mening hierover? Maakt de Commissie zelf ook gebruik van propaganda die rechtstreeks op kinderen is gericht? Bent u van mening dat het ethisch verantwoord is om dergelijke uitingen te richten op kinderen? Indien men zich realiseert dat er allerlei restricties zijn ingesteld op propaganda teneinde kinderen te beschermen tabak, alcohol etc. De Commissie volgt de communicatie-initiatieven van andere instellingen vol belangstelling met inbegrip van initiatieven die het Europees burgerschap en de Europese Unie in scholen helpen toelichten.
Hoewel de leerplannen een zaak zijn van de lidstaten, vindt de Commissie dat het belangrijk is dat schoolkinderen onderricht krijgen over democratie, politieke geschiedenis en regeringsvormen onder meer over de vraag waarom de Europese Unie is opgericht en hoe de Unie functioneert. In fact, it appears to be an embarrassing self parody in which MEPs are depicted as dashing from office to office, being picked up by limousines and needing the help of whole armies of assistants to perform the simplest tasks.
While this publication was the responsibility of the European Parliament President, can the Commission nevertheless give its views on such practices in general? Does the Commission agree that EU propaganda aimed specifically at children is a matter for great concern? If not, why not? Does the Commission itself direct propaganda specifically at children? If so, what purpose does this serve? Does the Commission consider it ethically justifiable to target children specifically in this respect? If so, can it give its reasons? The Commission follows with interest the communication initiatives of other Institutions, including those contributing to explaining European citizenship and the European Union in schools.
While recognising that the school curriculum is a matter for individual Member States, the Commission is of the view that it is important for school children to learn about democracy, political history and systems of government, including why the European Union was set up and how it functions. Volgens hem moeten de politieke partijen maar hard genoeg werken om de kiesdrempel te overschrijden. Het Europees Hof voor de rechten van de mens oordeelde in dat deze kiesdrempel geen schending vormde van het Europees Verdrag voor de rechten van de mens.
In his view, political parties simply need to work hard enough to exceed it. De klacht betreft het mogelijk schenden door JTI van de Europese sancties tegen het Syrische regime, door grote hoeveelheden sigaretten te verkopen aan een bedrijf in handen van familieleden van de Syrische president Bashir al-Assad. In mei waren reeds Europese sancties tegen deze familie van kracht.
Het baart ons zorgen dat in tegenstelling tot de Dalli-zaak het belangrijke JTI-onderzoek bijzonder traag verloopt. Wanneer heeft OLAF beslist om de klacht ontvankelijk te verklaren en het onderzoek gestart? Heeft de directeur-generaal van OLAF in het verleden direct leiding gegeven aan of was hij direct betrokken bij het onderzoek naar JTI? Wanneer is de inhoud van de klacht doorgestuurd naar de Cypriotische autoriteiten voor verificatie van de aantijgingen? Wanneer zullen leden van de Commissie budgetcontrole van het EP, officieel op de hoogte worden gesteld van de inhoud van het onderzoek jegens JTI?
Voert de Commissie onderhandelingen met JTI om een eventuele strafrechtelijke klacht te voorkomen, zoals eerder juridische akkoorden werden gesloten met bedrijven als Philip Morris en BAT?
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De Cypriotische autoriteiten hebben op de beschuldigingen gereageerd. The complaint concerned a possible breach by JTI of European sanctions against the Syrian regime by selling large quantities of cigarettes to a business owned by relatives of the Syrian President, Bashir al-Assad. The Syrian company was involved in financing military operations against the Syrian rebels. We are concerned that, unlike in the Dalli case, the important investigation into JTI is proceeding extremely slowly.
When did OLAF decide to declare the complaint admissible and when did it launch the investigation? Is the Director-General currently still involved in this investigation? When was the substance of the complaint forwarded to the Cypriot authorities for verification of the accusations? Is the Commission conducting negotiations with JTI in order to avoid possible criminal proceedings, in the same way as legal agreements were previously concluded with such companies as Philip Morris and BAT? The Cypriot authorities have responded to the allegations. Threats have been made against leading members of the Portuguese association set up to defend franchise holders rights, and also against franchise holders in general.
Contrary to the provisions laid down by law, this group uses a system that is inaccessible to franchise holders, which means that they cannot manage their own stocks, set prices, or determine the quantity of articles available and their profit margin. Franchise holders are also prevented from stocking brands other than Dia, even when they are not in competition with the Dia brand, and are obliged to accept products sent to them even though they have not ordered them.
What comments would it make on the allegations of systematic breaches of the law, including European directives on competition and the internal market? If so, what action has it taken? If a complaint is made, the Commission will carefully assess whether it provides sufficient evidence of concerns about possible anticompetitive behaviour by market operators and may start an investigation of an alleged infringement if the complaint presents sufficient European Union interest.
Indeed, certain behaviour such as limiting franchises' freedom to price their products could constitute a violation of competition law.
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However, it is also possible that this might best be addressed at national level by National Competition Authorities NCAs. UTPs can be understood as practices that significantly deviate from good commercial conduct, are contrary to good faith and fair dealing and are unilaterally imposed by one trading partner on its counterparty. The Commission is currently analysing the responses to its public consultation on the Green Paper on Unfair Trading Practices in the business-to-business food and non-food supply chain in Europe and is preparing an impact assessment to determine if there is a need for further action on this issue by the European Union.
In den letzten Monaten zeigte sich die Ukraine jedoch zunehmend unzufrieden mit den Handlungen, bzw. However, in recent months Ukraine has appeared increasingly unhappy with the action, or inaction, of the Energy Community. Did the Ukrainian Government approach the European Energy Community with a request for an opinion in the gas dispute with Russia? Please provide a detailed summary of the individual projects and the amount of funding involved. The Energy Community Treaty does not foresee any competence for the Energy Community to arbitrate between or to intervene in the discussion of a private law contract of a Contracting Party and Third Countries.
The European Commission has been closely working with Ukraine with a view to diversifying Ukraine's energy sources whilst ensuring that its gas transmission system remains a key part of the pan-European energy network. In the medium to long-term this should constitute the most effective way of assisting Ukraine, as far as energy issues are concerned.
According to the latest figures for the sector, the difference between the average interest rate paid by small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs and large companies in Spain is the widest it has ever been. Bearing in mind that the SME sector generates the most new jobs in the country, these high interest rates are an unacceptable barrier to the development of small companies and to job creation. Despite the rescue package which the European institutions are implementing in the banking sector and their plans to deepen banking union in the coming years, the European financial market is increasingly fragmented.
The interest rate paid by SMEs is on average more than double 5. The disparity between the two interest rates is evidence that the reforms currently being implemented are failing. Spanish SMEs are being hobbled by interest rates which are almost double those paid by large companies and 1. This is further evidence that austerity is economic nonsense, serving only to tighten the straitjacket on firms. How will it ensure that SMEs and large companies can take out loans on equal terms? The spreads at which Spanish companies borrow relative to their counterparts from other countries have increased and represent one element of competitive disadvantage for some Spanish companies, though not the main driver of the current economic fragility.
Since the onset of the crisis, average lending rates for Spanish non-financial corporates have been above the euro area average. This reflects higher risk premia from the perceived risk from the imbalances accumulated by Spain over time, including the loss of international competitiveness and a very large international debtor position, as well as some fragmentation of euro area financial markets, whereby low official interest rates have not been fully channelled to Spanish corporations.
Several initiatives have been taken or are underway to alleviate credit and liquidity constraints for companies, in particular SMEs, in Spain. For more information, the Honourable Member is referred to the Reviews of the Financial Assistance Programme for the Recapitalisation of Financial Institutions in Spain, and the Commission Staff Working Document assessing the national reform programme.
Las reformas necesarias para alcanzar estos objetivos, por lo general, exigen enfoques conjuntos respecto de la fiscalidad. The report, which concerns , shows that the number of rich people in the world has risen to record levels. One of its focal points is the growth in the number of millionaires in Spain: this country, beset by enormous economic and fiscal difficulties, has seen a 5. The austerity policies that the Commission is imposing on Member States with fiscal imbalances are intended to make their economies and public sectors more efficient and to put an end to the profligate spending of the past.
The Spanish Government, by making such swingeing cuts, is placing a straitjacket on the economy, stifling domestic demand, and thus preventing job creation, whilst destroying basic social services for the vast majority of the population and imposing regressive indirect taxes which yield less revenue for the public purse. It is against this background of a failed economy that the number of millionaires — people who, the prevailing neoclassical economic dogma argues, should not be taxed directly — is skyrocketing, leading to the inefficient distribution of wealth.
In its Annual growth Survey , the Commission calls for more efficient, competitive and fairer tax systems. The reforms needed to achieve those objectives generally require package approaches to taxation. In accordance with the subsidiarity principle, it is up to the Member States to determine the degree of redistribution they want their tax system to achieve and the tools they want to mobilise.
The Commission does not specifically collect data on the number of millionaires in the Member States. The Gini coefficient — a common measure of inequality in incomes — shows an increase in Spain between and last available year both when measured in terms of market income or disposable income.
This is not unique to Spain however. The shift from unsustainable domestic-demand-driven growth to a more balanced, export-oriented growth model has led to an erosion of previous tax bases in Spain. As a result, Spain has to reinforce the revenue base of its public finances in a structural way. Through this Written Question, we request information about the European funds made available to the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain, and the type of control the European institutions have over them.
We need this to be able to crosscheck the information available in Spain and, in turn, ensure greater transparency in how EU projects are funded in the region. How much money has the Autonomous Community of Valencia received from the European Investment Bank or the European Investment Fund between and the current financial year ?
Which bodies received these funds? What control mechanisms has the EIB put in place to manage these funds and to monitor the completion of the projects? The EIB monitors the projects that it finances from the signature of the loan contract through the project implementation and operation phase until the loan is paid back. Monitoring requirements are determined according to the characteristics of the project. An annex with a table with the transactions signed with CAV and its public companies since is sent directly to the Honourable Member and the Parliament.
We must be smart, not just right. This policy — a flagrant breach of international law and the biggest obstacle to any peace plan proposed to end the conflict — is advocated and implemented at all levels of the Israeli Government. We have spoken out against this criminal behaviour by the Israeli Government each time it has planned settlements on the Palestinian territories. Between and , more than 24 settlements have been built in the occupied territories, demonstrating that Israel has no desire to end this policy.
The association agreement with Israel is, however, contingent upon political cooperation at all levels in upholding international law. In view of these statements, would she consider suspending the EU-Israel association agreement until such time as Israel complies with international law and demonstrates the political will to do so?
The EU continues to monitor this issue very closely. The EU remains firmly opposed to Israeli settlement activities in Palestine and conveys this message to its Israeli counterparts at all levels as well as in various international fora. This is a crucial step towards achieving a lasting resolution to the conflict. De Organisatie van Islamitische Samenwerking OIC beschouwt zichzelf met haar 57 leden als de op een na grootste intergouvernementele organisatie, na de VN. Zij is verspreid over vier continenten en streeft ernaar de collectieve spreekbuis te zijn van de moslimmeerderheden in de wereld.
De OIC is in het afgelopen decennium aanzienlijk veranderd. Zij heeft zich meer ingezet voor de vrijheid van meningsuiting en de vrijheid van godsdienst en overtuiging en heeft het democratische overgangsproces in de Arabische wereld ondersteund. Voorts heeft de organisatie haar samenwerkingsagenda uitgebreid naar de gebieden van economie, cultuur, wetenschap, ontwikkeling en humanitaire kwesties.
Zij blijft ook ernstig bezorgd over daden van religieuze onverdraagzaamheid en geweld in de wereld. De overeenstemming die in de afgelopen twee jaar in opeenvolgende VN-resoluties werd bereikt over hoe religieuze onverdraagzaamheid overeenkomstig de normen op het gebied van de mensenrechten kan worden bestreden, was een belangrijk signaal. Dialoog is essentieel om misvattingen en meningsverschillen te overwinnen. De EU en de OIC kunnen samenwerken en kunnen over talrijke belangrijke kwesties overeenstemming bereiken, ondanks de huidige verschillen die op dit moment tussen hen bestaan.
Het is belangrijk te benadrukken dat betrokkenheid geen goedkeuring inhoudt en dat er ruimte is voor een betere verstandhouding. De nieuwe permanente observatiemissie van de OIC in Brussel kan hier ook toe bijdragen. It spreads over four continents and strives to be the collective voice of the Muslim majority world.
The OIC has undergone important changes during the last decade. It has made advances in support of both freedom of speech and freedom of religion or belief, and supported the democratic transition process in the Arab world. It has also enlarged its cooperation agenda to encompass economic, culture, scientific, development and humanitarian areas. A key signal was the agreement found in the past two years in successive UN resolutions on how to address the fight against religious intolerance, in line with human rights standards. Engagement and vigilance are both required with partner countries and organisations, such as the OIC, in order to maintain and develop this common understanding.
Dialogue is the only way to overcome misperceptions and differences of opinion. The EU and OIC can work together and find common understanding on many important issues, even if there are current prevailing differences. But it is important to stress that engagement is not endorsement, and that there are scope for fostering better understanding. The EU-OIC relations can go beyond the religious, humanitarian and assistance fields, and could be engaged on a number of important issues.
O Regulamento CE n. Recent news reports indicate that as a result of the crisis and the attendant austerity measures, some Member States have not been carrying out all the food safety checks required under Community law. Is the Commission aware of this situation and, if so, what steps does it intend to take?
The responsibility for enforcing food chain legislation lies with Member States, which are required to establish a system of official controls to verify compliance by operators with requirements deriving therefrom.
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The Commission constantly monitors delivery by the Member States of their control duties, including through on-the-spot audits by its Food and Veterinary Office, and is aware of difficulties with the organisation of official controls which may arise as a result of the financial crisis and the growing lack of resources. Moreover, the proposal calls for adequate financial resources to be made available to the competent authorities performing official controls and requires mandatory fees to be charged on a wider array of operators to recover the costs incurred by the said authorities as a result of the performance of official control activities.
Figures produced by the World Health Organisation WHO show that, in Europe, one child in three between the ages of six and nine is overweight or obese. Various different studies have confirmed the correlation between exposure to advertising for unhealthy food products and child obesity, and it is on overweight children that such advertising has the greatest impact.
What action will the Commission take to monitor these developments and guarantee that children are not exposed to advertising for unhealthy foods? The risks associated with aquaculture stem mainly from the use of chemicals, particularly antibiotics and disinfectants.