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Elle va faire des heureux! Ce ballet est indigent, on le savait. Quant aux sauvages et bien que dire…. Le retour au Paradis perdu est jouissif!!! La voix est grande et les vocalises bien en place. Telle est dans ces Indes galantes, la faute originelle. Le propos enthousiasme le public du Capitole. La reconstitution historique pure et dure?

Booba - A la folie (Clip Officiel)

La distribution est jeune et plaisante. Franck-Emmanuel Comte. Daniel Reuss — Orchestra of the 18th Century — dir. Ancienne choriste de multiples ensembles baroques, elle se plie aux exigences stylistiques mais ses vocalises restent assez inexactes. Nicolas Rivenq est, comme toujours, excellent. Du grand art!! Kindle Edition. Next page. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Books By Roland Jaccard. Mass Market Paperback. Get it by Sunday, Jun 30 Only 2 left in stock. La tentation nihiliste Perspectives critiques Jan Station terminale Mar Only 1 left in stock.

Freud: "Que sais-je? Priestley seems to have gotten on very well, although the philosophers found his materialism and unitarianism a trifle inconsistent. It was at Holbach's that Shelburne met Morellet with whom he carried on a long and serious correspondence on economics. There seem to be no details of Holbach's relations with Franklin, who was evidently more assiduous at the salon of Mme.

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Helvetius whom he desired to marry. Holbach's best friend among the Italians was Abbe Galiani, secretary of the Neapolitan Embassy, who spent ten years in the salons of Paris. After his return to Naples his longing for Paris led him to a voluminous correspondence with his French friends including Holbach. A few of their letters are extant. Beccaria and his friend Veri, who accompanied him, had long been admirers of French philosophy, and the Frenchmen found much to admire in Beccaria's book.

Servan of the Parlement of Bordeaux, a friend of Holbach's, tried to put his reforms in practice and shared the fate of most reformers. Holbach was also in correspondence with Beccaria, and one of his letters has been published in M. Landry's recent study of Beccaria. Gatti; Pincini, the musician; and Mme. Riccoboni, ex-actress and novelist; whose lively correspondence with Garrick whom she met at Holbach's sheds much light on the social relations of the century.


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Among the well known women of the century Holbach was most intimate with Mme. Holbach's and was present at the birth of her first son, and, in her will, left her a portrait by Rembrandt. He was also a friend of Mme. Geoffrin, attended her salon, and knew Mlle.

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Houderot and most of the important women of the day. There are excellent sources from which to form an estimate of this man whose house was the social centre of the century. All these accounts agree in picturing him as the most admirable of men. It must be remembered that Holbach always enjoyed what was held to be a considerable fortune in his day. This freedom from economic pressure gave him leisure to devote his time to his chosen intellectual pursuits and to his friends. He was a universally learned man. He knew French, German, English, Italian and Latin extremely well and had a fine private library of about three thousand works often of several volumes each, in these languages and in Greek and Hebrew.

The catalogue of this library was published by Debure in It would be difficult to imagine a more comprehensive and complete collection of its size. He had also a rich collection of drawings by the best masters, fine pictures of which he was a connoisseur, bronzes, marbles, porcelains and a natural history cabinet, so in vogue in those days, containing some very valuable specimens.

He was one of the most learned men of his day in natural science, especially chemistry and mineralogy, and to his translations from the best German scientific works is largely due the spread of scientific learning in France in the eighteenth century. Holbach was also very widely read in English theology and philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and derived his anti-theological inspiration from these two sources. To this vast fund of learning, he joined an extreme modesty and simplicity. He sought no academic honors, published all his works anonymously, and, had it not been for the pleasure he took in communicating his ideas to his friends, no one would have suspected his great erudition.

He had an extraordinary memory and the reputation of never forgetting anything of interest. This plenitude of information, coupled with his easy and pleasant manner of talking, made his society much sought after. Naigeon said of him in his preface to the works of Lagrange : Personne n'etait plus communicatif que M. Egalement verse dans la plupart des matieres sur lesquelles il importe le plus a des etres raisonnables d'avoir une opinion arretee, M.

Quelque fut l'objet de ses entretiens avec ses amis, ou meme avec des indifferens, tels qu'en offrent plus ou moins toutes les societes; il inspirait sans effort a ceux qui l'ecoutaient l'enthousiasme de l'art ou de la science dont il parlait; et on ne le quittait jamais sans regretter de n'avoir pas cultive la branche particuliere de connaissances qui avait fait le sujet de la conversation, sans desirer d'etre plus instruit, plus eclaire, et surtout sans admirer la claret, la justesse de son esprit, et l'ordre dans lequel il savait presenter ses idees.

He was always glad to lend or give his books to anyone who could make use of them. And he did this without any religious motive whatsoever. As he said to Helvetius, "Vous etes brouille avec tous ceux que vous avez oblige, mais j'ai garde tous mes amis. Diderot tells how at the Salon of after Holbach had bought Oudry's famous picture, all the collectors who had passed it by came to him and offered him twice what he paid for it. Holbach went to find the artist to ask him permission to cede the picture to his profit, but Oudry refused, saying that he was only too happy that his best work belonged to the man who was the first to appreciate it.

Instances of Holbach's liberality to Kohant, a poor musician, and to Suard, a poor literary man, are to be found in the pages of Diderot and Meister, and his constant generosity to his friends is a commonplace in their Memoirs and Correspondence. Only Rousseau was ungrateful enough to complain that Holbach's free-handed gifts insulted his poverty. His kindness to Lagrange, a young literary man whom he rescued from want, has been well told by M. Naigeon in the preface to the works of Lagrange p.

The first concerns the reconciliation of two old peasants who, not wanting to go to court, brought their differences to their respected friend for a settlement. Nothing is more simple and beautiful than this homely tale as told in a letter of Holbach's to a friend of his. The second, which John Wilkes said ought to be written in letters of gold, deserves to be reproduced as a whole.

L'eloge funebre que M. Naigeon a consacre a la memoire de M. J'ai vu M. S'occuper de sa souffrance et de sa guerison, c'est le soin de chaque malade. Lorsque des malades indigens manquaient de secours, ou pecuniaires ou curatifs, il les leur procurait avec un plaisir qui lui faisait plus de bien que les eaux. Je me promenais un soir avec lui sur une hauteur couverte d'un massif de bois qui fait perspective de loin et pres duquel s'eleve un petit Hermitage. La, demeure un cenobite qui n'a de revenu que les aumones de ceux dont il recoit les visites. Nous acquittames chacun notre dette hospitaliere.

En prenant conge de l'Hermite, M. Je le precedai, et comme il ne me suivait pas je m'arretai, pour l'attendre sur un terte exhausse d'ou l'on decouvre tout le pays. Je contemplais le canton que je dominais, plonge dans une douce reverie. J'en fus tire par des cris et je me retournai vers l'endroit d'ou ils partaient. Je vis M. Tous trois, les larmes aux yeux, l'embrassaient hautement.

Allez vous-en donc, s'ecrait M. En me voyant arriver vers eux, les trois personnes reconnaissantes disparurent. Je lui demandai le sujet de tant de benedictions. Ce jeune paysan que vous avez vu s'etait engage, j'ai obtenu de son colonel sa liberte en payant les cents ecus prescrits par l'ordonnance. Il est amoureux d'une jeune paysanne aussi pauvre que lui, je viens d'acheter pour eux un petit bien qui m'a coute huit cent francs. Le vieux pere est perclus, aux deux bras, de rhumatismes, je lui ai fourni trois boites du baume des Valdejeots, si estime en ce pays-ci.

La vieille mere est sujette a des maux d'estomac, et je lui ai apporte un pot de confection d'hyacinthe. Ils travaillaient dans le champ, voisin du bois, je suis alle les voir tandis que vous marchiez en avant. Ils m'ont suivi malgre moi. Ne parlez de cela a personne. On dirait que je veux faire le genereux et le bon philosophe, mais je ne suis que humain, et mes charites sont la plus agreable depense de mes voyages.

This humanity of Holbach's is the very keynote of his character and of his intellectual life as well. Walferdin has said, the denial of the supernatural was for him the base of all virtue, and resting on this principle, he exemplified social qualities that do the greatest honor to human nature.

He and Madame Holbach are the only conspicuous examples of conjugal fidelity and happiness among all the people that one has occasion to mention in a study of the intellectual and literary circles of the eighteenth century. They were devoted to each other, to their children and to their friends. Considering the traits of Holbach's character that have been cited, there can scarcely be two opinions in regard to completeness with which he realized his ideal of humanity and sociability.

Naigeon has well summed up in a few words Holbach's relation to the only duties that he recognized, "He was a good husband, a good father and a good friend. Holbach's published works, with the exception of a few scattered ones, may be divided into three classes, viz. Those which fall into none of these categories can be dealt with very summarily. They are: 1. Eidous Amsterdam, , 12mo, pp. Holbach's translations of German scientific works are as follows: Complete titles to be found in Bibliography, Pt. Original work in Italian. Latin translation by Christopher Merret.

German translation by J. Kunckel of Loewenstern. Holbach's translation comprises the seven books of Antionio Neri, Merret's notes on Neri, Kunckel's observations on both these authors, his own experiments and others relative to glass-making. The translation was dedicated to Malesherbes who had desired to see the best German scientific works published in French.

S'il a le bonheur de meriter son approbation, quoiqu'il y ait peu de gloire attachee au travail ingrat et fastidieux d'un Traducteur, je me determinerai a donner les meilleurs ouvrages allemands, sur l'Histoire Naturelle, la Mineralogie, la Metallurgie et la Chymie. Tout le monde sait que l'Allemagne possede en ce genre des tresors qui ont ete jusqu'ici comme enfouis pour la France. Second edition, Paris, Herrissant, Originally in Swedish Wallerius was a professor of chemistry in the University of Upsala. Denso, Professor of Chemistry, Stargard, Pomerania.

Holbach's translation was made from the German edition which Wallerius considered preferable to the Swedish. He was assisted by Bernard de Jussien and Rouelle, and the work was dedicated to a friend and co-worker in the natural sciences, Monsieur d'Arclais de Montamy. Stephani, as an outline of his lectures. Holbach's translation made from a German edition, corrected, with notes on new discoveries added.

Paris, Briasson, , translated earlier. Approbation May 1, , Privilege Dec. Originally a text written by Gellert for four artillery officers whom the King of Sardinia sent to Freyburg to learn mining-engineering. Paris, Herrissant, , by J. Lehmann, three vols. L'Art des Mines, II. Traite de la formation des metaux, III. Essai d'une histoire naturelle des couches de la terre. Il s'agit simplement d'examiner si les naturalistes, tels que Woodward, Schenchzer, Buttner et M. Lehmann lui-meme ne se sont points trompes, lorsqu'ils ont attribue a cet evenement seul la formation des couches de la terre et lorsqu'ils s'en sont servis pour expliquer l'etat actuel de notre globe.

Il semble que rien ne doit nous empecher d'agiter cette question; l'Ecriture sainte se contente de nous apprendre la voie miraculeuse dont Dieu s'est servi pour punir les crimes du genre humain; elle ne dit rien qui puisse limiter les sentiments des naturalistes sur les autres effets physiques que le deluge a pu produire. C'est une matiere qu'elle paroit avoir abandonnee aux disputes des hommes. Concluons, donc, de tout ce qui precede, que le deluge, seul et les feux souterrains seuls ne suffisent point pour expliquer la formation des couches de la terre.

On risquera toujours de se tromper, lorsque par l'envie de simplifier on voudra deriver tous les phenomenes de la nature d'une seule et unique cause. Henkel, Paris, Herrissant, , a large volume in quarto, translated by Holbach. Charas and reviewed by M. Zimmermann, a pupil of M. Holbach's translations seem to have been well received because he writes in this preface: "Je m'estimerai heureux si mon travail peut contribuer a entretenir et augmenter le gout universel qu'on a concu pour le saine physique.

Orschall, Paris, Hardy, Orschall still accepted the old alchemist tradition but was sound in practice and was the best authority on copper. Holbach does not attempt to justify his physics which was that of the preceding century. Orschall was held in high esteem by Henckel and Stahl. These records of experiments made in the Royal Laboratories of Sweden, founded in by Charles XI, had already been translated into German and English.

Holbach's translation was made from the German and Latin. He promises further treatises on Agriculture, Natural History and Medicine. Stahl, Paris, Didot, In speaking of Stahl's theories Holbach says: "Il ne faut pas croire que ces connaissances soient des verites steriles propres seulement a satisfaire une vaine curiosite, elles ont leur application aux travaux de la metallurgie qui leur doivent la perfection ou on les a portes depuis quelques temps.

There is a MSS. Malesherbes, then Administrateur de la Librairie Royale; suggesting other German treatises that might well be translated. Liege fils pourrait entreprendre la traduction. Je n'en connais actuellement point d'autres qui meritent l'attention du public. Macquer m'a ecrit une lettre qui a pour objet les memes choses dont vous m'avez fait l'honneur de me parler, et je lui fais la meme reponse.

Lehmann, Berlin, , 4 deg.. After Holbach became interested in another line of intellectual activity, namely the writing and translation of anti-religious literature. His first book of this sort really appeared in although no copies bear this date. From on however he published a great many works of this character. It is convenient to deal first with his translations of English deistical writers. They are in chronological order. Londres Amsterdam , The book was partially rewritten by Holbach and then touched up by Naigeon, who, according to a manuscript note by his brother, "atheised it as much as possible.

The book was a violent attack on the spirit of domination which characterized the Christian priesthood at that time. Copies of this work have become very rare. Chandler, Palmer and others, had likened their late King to David, "the man after God's own heart. Londres, Cooper, A rare volume. Translation of J. The book, which had become very rare in Holbach's time, had caused a great scandal at the time of its publication and was much sought after by collectors. It contains five letters, the first three of which are by Toland, the other two and the preface by Holbach and Naigeon.

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The matters treated are, the origin of prejudices, the dogma of the immortality of the soul, idolatry, superstition, the system of Spinoza and the origin of movement in matter. Diderot said of these works, in writing to Mlle. Volland Nov. XVIII, p. Je tremble toujours que quelqu'un de ces temeraires artilleurs-la ne s'en trouve mal.

Madame de Blacy, je crains bien que le Fils de l'Homme ne soit a la porte; que la venue d'Elie ne soit proche, et que nous ne touchions au regne de l'Anti-christ. Tous les jours, quand je me leve, je regarde par ma fenetre, si la grande prostituee de Babylone ne se promene point deja dans les rues avec sa grande coupe a la main et s'il ne se fait aucun des signes predits dans le firmament.

London, Dissertation sur l'immortalite de l'ame. Translated from Hume. Dissertation sur le suicide Hume. Extrait d'un livre Anglais qui a pour titre le Christianisme aussi ancien que le monde. Tindal, Christianity as old as Creation. Londres Amsterdam , , translated from Anthony Collins. With the exception of some of Holbach's own works this is one of the fiercest denunciations of Judaism and Christianity to be found in print. In fact, it is very much in the style of Holbach's anti-religious works and shows beyond a doubt that Holbach derived his inspiration from Collins and the more radical of the English school.

The volume has become exceedingly rare. After outlining the history of Judaism the book ends thus: Ose, donc enfin, o Europe! Laisse a des Hebreux stupides, a des frenetiques imbeciles, a des Asiatiques laches et degrades, ces superstitions aussi avilissantes qu'insensees: elles ne sont point faites pour les habitans de ton climat.

Occupe-toi du soin de perfectionner tes gouvernemens, de corriger tes lois, de reformer tes abus, de regler tes moeurs, et ferme pour toujours les yeux a ces vraies chimeres, qui depuis tant de siecles n'ont servi qu'a retarder tes progres vers la science veritable et a t'ecarter de la route du bonheur. Carlile, A rather unsympathetic account, but with flashes of real insight into "le systeme religieux des Chretiens dont S. Paul fut evidemment le veritable architecte.

Annet said of Paul's type of man "l'enthousiaste s'enivre, pour l'ainsi dire, de son propre vin, il se persuade que la cause de ses passions est la cause de Dieu p. Paul, il sentait tres bien que la doctrine qu'il prechait devait paraitre bizarre et insensee a des etres raisonnables" p. Thomas Hobbes. In spite of its brevity, Holbach considered this one of Hobbes' most important and luminous works.

Translated from Woolston, whom Holbach admired very much for his uncompromising attitude toward truth. He suffered fines and imprisonments, but would not give up the privilege of writing as he pleased. The present discourse was the cause of a quarrel with his friend Whiston. He died Jan. In fact it is mentioned by Grimm before , but the dictionaries Barber, Querard generally date it from Before turning to Holbach's original works mention should be made of a very interesting and extraordinary book that he brought to light, retouched, and later used as a kind of shield against the attacks of the parliaments upon his own works.

Par feu M. Boulanger, Amsterdam, The use made by Holbach of Boulanger's name makes it necessary to consider for a moment this almost forgotten writer. Nicholas Antoine Boulanger was born in As a child he showed so little aptitude for study that later his teachers could scarcely believe that he had turned out to be a really learned man. As Diderot observes, "ces exemples d'enfans, rendus ineptes entre les mains des Pedans qui les abrutissent en depit de la nature la plus heureuse, ne sont pas rares, cependant ils surprennent toujours" p.

Boulanger studied mathematics and architecture, became an engineer and was employed by the government as inspector of bridges and highways. He passed a busy life in exacting outdoor work but at the same time his active intellect played over a large range of human interests. He became especially concerned with historical origins and set himself to learn Latin and Greek that he might get at the sources. Not satisfied that he had come to the root of the matter he learned Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew and Chaldean. Diderot says "Il lisait et etudiait partout, je l'ai moi-meme rencontre sur les grandes routes avec un auteur rabinnique a la main.

Some such rearrangement of hemispheres is one of the commonplaces of modern geography. He died from overwork at the age of thirty-seven. Boulanger's ideas on philosophy, mythology, anthropology and history are of extraordinary interest today. Diderot relates his saying--"Que si la philosophie avait trouve tant d'obstacles parmi nous c'etait qu'on avait commence par ou il aurait fallu finir, par des maximes abstraites, des raisonnemens generaux, des reflexions subtiles qui ont revolte par leur etrangete et leur hardiesse et qu'on aurait admises sans peine si elles avaient ete precedees de l'histoire des faits.

Un fait et non une speculation metaphysique m'a toujours semble devoir etre et tribut naturel et necessaire de l'histoire. It is a bit unfortunate that he took the deluge quite as literally as he did; his idea, however, is obviously the influence of environmental pressure on the changing beliefs and practices of mankind. Under the spell of this new point of view, he writes, "Ce qu'on appelle l'histoire n'en est que la partie la plus ingrate, la plus uniforme, la plus inutile, quoi qu'elle soit la plus connue.

La veritable histoire est couverte par le voile des temps" p. Boulanger however was not to be daunted and on the firm foundation of the fact of some ancient and universal catastrophe, as recorded on the surface of the earth and in human mythology, he proceeds to inquire into the moral effects of the changes in the physical environment back to which if possible the history of antiquity must be traced. But it was not his fault nor has time repaired the evil moral effects of that early catastrophe.

Hence have arisen the various psychological states through which mankind has passed. Contemporary savages are still in the primitive state--Boulanger properly emphasizes the relation of anthropology to history--"On apercoit qu'il y a une nouvelle maniere de voir et d'ecrire l'histoire des hommes" p. C'est une enterprise serieuse et reflechie" p. In Holbach published his first original work, a few copies of which had been printed in Nancy in There were several other editions the same year, one printed at John Wilkes' private press in Westminster.

It was reprinted in later collections of Boulanger's works, and went through several English and Spanish editions. The form of the title and the attribution of the work to Boulanger were designed to set persecution on the wrong track. There has been some discussion as to its authorship. Voltaire and Laharpe attributed it to Damilaville, at whose book shop it was said to have been sold, but M.

Barbier has published detailed information given him by Naigeon to the effect that Holbach entrusted his manuscript to M. De Saint-Lambert, who had it printed by Leclerc at Nancy in Most of the copies that got to Paris at that time were bought by several officers of the King's regiment then in garrison at Nancy, among them M. Damilaville did not sell a single copy and even had a great deal of trouble to get one for Holbach who waited for it a long time.

This circumstantial evidence is of greater value than the statement of Voltaire who was in the habit of attributing anonymous works to whomever he pleased. Naigeon, was Holbach's literary factotum. Sometimes they were sent directly by the diligence or through travellers. This account agrees perfectly with information given M. C'est un feu roulant qui crible le sanctuaire de toutes parts L'intolerance du gouvernment s'accroit de jour en jour. On dirait que c'est un projet forme d'eteindre ici les lettres, de ruiner le commerce de librairie et de nous reduire a la besace et a la stupidite Diderot gives the following instance in a letter to Mlle.

Volland Oct. Celui-ci le defere au lieutenant de police. Le colporteur, sa femme et l'apprenti sont arretes tous les trois; ils viennent d'etre pilories, fouettes et marques, et l'apprenti condamne a neuf ans de galeres, le colporteur a cinq ans, et la femme a l'hopital pour toute sa vie. Boulanger, mais je vous assure que les gens au fait ne m'attribuent point du tout cet ouvrage.

J'avoue avec vous qu'il y a de la clarte, de la chaleur, et quelque fois de l'eloquence; mais il est plein de repetitions, de negligences, de fautes contre la langue et je serais tres-fache de l'avoir fait, non seulement comme academicien, mais comme philosophe, et encore plus comme citoyen. Ce livre conduit a l'atheisme que je deteste.

J'ai toujours regarde l'atheisme comme le plus grand egarement de la raison, parce qu'il est aussi ridicule de dire que l'arrangement du monde ne prouve pas un artisan supreme qu'il serait impertinent de dire qu'une horloge ne prouve pas un horloger. Des hommes qui penseraient comme lui ne formeraient qu'une anarchie: et je vois trop, par l'example de Geneve, combien l'anarchie est a craindre.

XXXI, p. Boulanger, volume in 8vo.

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On peut assurer avec la meme certitude que celui dont nous parlons ne vient point de la fabrique de Ferney, parce que j'aimerais mieux croire que le patriache eut pris la lune avec ses dents; cela serait moins impossible que de guetter sa maniere et son allure si completement qu'il n'en restat aucune trace quelconque. Par la meme raison, je ne crois ce livre d'aucun de nos philosophes connus, parce que je n'y trouve la maniere d'aucun de ceux qui ont ecrit. D'ou vient-il donc? Ma foi, je serais fache de le savoir, et je crois que l'auteur aura sagement fait de ne mettre personne dans son secret.

C'est le livre le plus hardi et le plus terrible qui ait jamais parti dans aucun lieu du monde. La preface consiste dans une lettre ou l'auteur examine si la religion est reellement necessaire ou seulement utile au maintien ou a la police des empires, et s'il convient de la respecter sous ce point de vue. Comme il etablit la negative, il entreprend en consequence de prouver, par son ouvrage, l'absurdite et l'incoherence du dogme Chretien et de la mythologie qui en resulte, et l'influence de cette absurdite sur les tetes et sur les ames. Dans la seconde partie, il examine la morale chretienne, et il pretend prouver que dans ses principes generaux elle n'a aucun avantage sur toutes les morales du monde, parce que la justice et la bonte sont recommandees dans tous les catechismes de l'univers, et que chez aucun peuple, quelque barbare qu'il fut, on n'a jamais enseigne qu'il fallut etre injuste et mechant.

Quant a ce que la morale chretienne a de particulier, l'auteur pretend demontrer qu'elle ne peut convenir qu'a des enthousiastes peu propres aux devoirs de la societe, pour lesquels les hommes sont dans ce monde. Il entreprend de prouver, dans la troisieme partie, que la religion chretienne a eu les effets politiques les plus sinistres et les plus funestes, et que le genre humain lui doit tous les malheurs dont il a ete accable depuis quinze a dix-huit siecles, sans qu'on en puisse encore prevoir la fin.

Ce livre est ecrit avec plus de vehemence que de veritable eloquence; il entraine. Son style est chatie et correct, quoique un peu dur et sec; son ton est grave et soutenu. On n'y apprend rien de nouveau, et cependant il attache et interesse. Malgre son incroyable temerite, on ne peut refuser a l'auteur la qualite d'homme de bien fortement epris du bonheur de sa race et de la prosperite des societes; mais je pense que ses bonnes intentions seraient une sauvegarde bien faible contre les mandements et les requisitions.

The church very naturally did not let such a book pass unanswered. La religion Chretienne fondee sur la parole de Dieu Dieu qui veille sur son ouvrage n'a pas besoin de nos faibles mains pour le soutenir" Psaume 32, vs. This book went through many editions and was augmented by subsequent authors and editors.

Voltaire was already writing to d'Alembert about it August 14, XIV, p. Les jeunes gens et les femmes lisent cette folie avec avidite. Les editions de tous les livres dans ce gout se multiplient. And on February 8, , he wrote: On fait tous les jours des livres contre la religion, dont je voudrais bien imiter le style pour la defendre. Ces livres malheuresement inondent l'Europe; mais quelle est la cause de cette inondation? Il n'y en a point d'autre que les querelles theologiques qui ont revolte les laiques.

In a letter to d'Alembert, May 24, Vol. LXV, p. Diderot even said of the book: "C'est un assez bon nombre de bonnes plaisanteries noyees dans un beaucoup plus grand nombre de mauvaises" and this criticism is just. La premiere est tres sainte et se pratique journellement dans l'eglise. Voltaire ascribed the work to St. Grimm recognized that the last chapter was by another hand and considered it the weakest part of the book. It attempts to demonstrate that all supernatural religions have been harmful to society and that the only useful religion is natural religion or morals.

In his preface Holbach attributed the alleged English original of this work to John Trenchard but that was only a ruse to avoid persecution. The book is by Holbach. It has gone through many editions and been translated into English and Spanish. The first edition had an introduction by Naigeon. According to him manuscripts of this book became quite rare at one time and were supposed to have been lost. Later they became more common and this edition was corrected by collation with six others.

A sentence introducing the fifth book in this list, "Letters to Eugenie", has evidently been lost. Her young husband was a great friend of the Holbachs, but having had a strict Catholic bringing up she was shocked at their infidelity and warned by her confessor to keep away from them. Her natural good sense and love for her friends struggled with her monastic education and reverence for the priests.

The conflict rendered her miserable and she returned to her country seat to brood over it. In this state of mind she at length wrote to the Baron and laid open her situation requesting him to comfort, console, and enlighten her. They were carefully revised before they were sent to the press. All the purely personal passages were omitted and others added to hide the identity of the persons concerned. Letters of the sort to religious ladies were common at this time.

In Holbach published two short treatises on the doctrine of eternal punishment which claimed to be translations from English, but the originals are not to be found. Londres, Amsterdam, Hibbert to say, "I know not why English publishers attribute this awfully sounding work to the cautious, not to say timid d'Alembert. It is an extremely careful but unsympathetic analysis of the Gospel accounts, emphasizing all the inconsistencies and interpreting them with a literalness that they can ill sustain.

From this rationalistic view-point Holbach found the Gospels a tissue of absurdities and contradictions. His method, however, would not be followed by the critique of today. Holbach's proposition is "La raison ne connait qu'une mesure pour juger et les hommes et les choses, c'est l'utilite reelle et permanente, qui en resulte pour notre espece," p. Judged by this standard, the saints with their eyes fixed on another world have fallen far short.

Holbach much prefers the heroes of classical antiquity.

The French Émigrés in Europe and the Struggle against Revolution, 1789–1814

The book is violent but learned throughout, and deals not only with the Jewish patriarchs from Moses on but with the church fathers and Christian Princes down to the contemporary defenders of the faith. After a rather one-sided account of the most dreary characters and events in Christian history, Holbach concludes: "Tel fut, tel est, et tel sera toujours l'esprit du Christianisme: il est aise de sentir qu'il est incompatible avec les principes les plus evidens de la morale et de la saine politique" p.

Reflexions sur les craintes de la Mort. Probleme important--La Religion est-elle necessaire a la morale et utile a la Politique. Par M. Londres Amsterdam , , under name of Dumarsais. The King of Prussia writing from the point of view of a practical, enlightened despot, took special exception to Holbach's remarks on government. Mais, quand avec un acharnement violent et les traits de la plus acre satire, il calomnie son Roi et le gouvernement de son pays, on le prend pour un frenetique echappe de ses chaines, et livre aux transports les plus violens de sa rage.

Quoi, Monsieur le philosophe, protecteur des moeurs et de la vertu, ignorez vous qu'un bon citoyen doit respecter la forme de gouvernement sous laquelle il vit, ignorez vous qu'il ne convient point a un particulier d'insulter les Puissances Holbach in his anti-militaristic enthusiasm had used the words "bourreaux mercenaires"; "epithete elegante," continues Frederick, "dont il honore les guerriers.

Mais souffrions nous qu'un cerveau brule insulte au plus noble emploi de la Societe? He goes on to defend war in good old-fashioned terms. J'ai prouve que de tout temps l'erreur a domine dans ce monde; et comme une chose aussi constante peut etre envisagee comme une loi general de la nature, j'en conclus que ce qui a ete toujours sera toujours le meme" p. Frederick sent his little refutation to Voltaire for his compliments which were forthcoming.

Serait-il de Diderot? LXVI, p.


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Je ne suis point etonne que ce prince n'ait pas goute l'ouvrage; je l'ai lu depuis cette refutation et il m'a paru bien long, bien monotone et trop amer. Il me semble que ce qu'il y de bon dans ce livre aurait pu et du etre noye dans moins de pages et je vois que vous en avez porte a peu pres le meme jugement Vol. It seems wiser, however, to deal with this work in a chapter apart and continue the account of his later publications. This work has gone through twenty-five editions or more and has been translated into English, German, Italian and Spanish.